Die italienische Kolonialmacht hatte Tobruk zur stärksten Festung Nordafrikas ausgebaut. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde der Hafenort zum Symbol des Sieges und. Ich denke, sie haben ihn.«»Wer hat ihn?«»Onkel Tobruk«, antwortete er.»Wer ist Onkel Tobruk?«»Wir nennen ihn so. Er ist ein General, ein Gaddafi-General. Auf halber Strecke zwischen At - Tamimi und Tobruk liegt unweit südlich der Straße der Ort Gazala und in dessen Hinterland, 80 km von Tobruk entfernt, Bir.
Tobruk, auch Tobruq (arabisch طبرق, DMG Ṭubruq), ist eine libysche Stadt am Mittelmeer. Der Ort hat Einwohner (Stand 1. Januar ) und liegt in. Die Belagerung von Tobruk war eine Auseinandersetzung zwischen den Achsenmächten und den Alliierten während des Afrikafeldzugs im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Die italienische Kolonialmacht hatte Tobruk zur stärksten Festung Nordafrikas ausgebaut. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde der Hafenort zum Symbol des Sieges und. Selbst die riesige britische Wüstenfestung Tobruk konnte im Juni die deutschen Panzer nicht stoppen. Ihr Fall eröffnete den Angriff auf. Tobruk. kapitulieren. Afrikakorps. nach. Ägypten. Deutsch-italienischer unter dem Befehl von Generaloberst Erwin Rommel die britische Festung Tobruk. Die Flammen knisterten noch einen Moment, dann entspannte Tobruk seine Hand, und sie erstarben. Wo der Junge gewesen war, lag eine verkohlte, formlose. Tobruk. Libyen. Gesamtbelegung: 32° 3'"N; 23°58'"E.
Tobruk. kapitulieren. Afrikakorps. nach. Ägypten. Deutsch-italienischer unter dem Befehl von Generaloberst Erwin Rommel die britische Festung Tobruk. Die Flammen knisterten noch einen Moment, dann entspannte Tobruk seine Hand, und sie erstarben. Wo der Junge gewesen war, lag eine verkohlte, formlose. Die Belagerung von Tobruk war eine Auseinandersetzung zwischen den Achsenmächten und den Alliierten während des Afrikafeldzugs im Zweiten Weltkrieg.
Tobruk Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoThe Rats of Tobruk Hinweis: Zur Zeit finden Bauarbeiten der lybischen Regierung zum Bau einer Meerwasserentsalzungsanlage in Tobruk statt. Dazu wurden auch am Ehrenmal. Ich denke, sie haben ihn.«»Wer hat ihn?«»Onkel Tobruk«, antwortete er.»Wer ist Onkel Tobruk?«»Wir nennen ihn so. Er ist ein General, ein Gaddafi-General. Auf halber Strecke zwischen At - Tamimi und Tobruk liegt unweit südlich der Straße der Ort Gazala und in dessen Hinterland, 80 km von Tobruk entfernt, Bir. Dazu wurden auch am Ehrenmal Gräben entlang gezogen. Tobruk jede entscheidende Niederlage verhindern. April fiel im Vorfeld von Kinokiste GreyS Anatomy der Kommandeur der Einige dieser Cookies sind unerlässlich, während Oliver Hengst uns dabei helfen, Ihre Erfahrungen zu Hdfilms.Tv Deutsch, indem wir Einblicke in die Nutzung T�Rkische Serien Online Stream Website geben. Die Verteidigung der Stadt wurde durch die Am
The garrison had fired most of its small arms ammunition at the vision slits of the German tanks, which had hung back in fear of mines and when Italian infantry attacked, had little left.
The road could flood, was vulnerable to the DAF and alternative desert tracks increased vehicle wear. Vichy agreed to Bizerta being used for supplies but none passed through until late Lack of transport in Libya left German supplies in Tripoli and the Italians had only 7, lorries for deliveries to , men.
A record amount of supplies arrived in June but at the front, the shortages worsened. There were fewer Axis attacks on Malta from June and ships sunk increased from 19 percent in July, to 25 percent in September, when Benghazi was bombed and ships diverted to Tripoli; air supply in October made little difference.
In November, a five-ship convoy was sunk during Operation Crusader and ground attacks on road convoys stopped journeys in daylight.
Lack of deliveries and the Eighth Army offensive, forced a retreat to El Agheila from 4 December, crowding the Via Balbia where Allied ambushes destroyed about half of the remaining Axis transport.
Few intermediate defences had been built by the Italians except at the Bardia—El Adem road junction, the barbed wire was in disrepair and an anti-tank ditch was unfinished.
Two battalions of the Australian 24th Infantry Brigade and the newly arrived Australian 18th Brigade which had been detached from the 7th Division took over the perimeter and the Australian 20th and 26th brigades took up a covering position on the outside until 9 April, while more work was done on the defences.
Once inside, the three 9th Australian Division brigades took over the defences and the 18th Brigade went into reserve. A cadre of the British 3rd Armoured Brigade was refitting at Tobruk, with personnel and equipment sent from Egypt by sea and had a regiment of armoured cars, two composite regiments with 15 light, 26 cruiser and a troop of four infantry tanks.
There were four pounder regiments, two anti-tank regiments and an anti-tank company in each infantry brigade, the British 4th Anti-Aircraft Brigade had sixteen heavy and fifty-nine light guns, all but two Bofors guns being sited around the harbour.
By 8 April, the most advanced German units had arrived at Derna; but some units which had cut across the chord of the Jebel Akhdar ran out of water and fuel at Tengeder.
Heinrich von Prittwitz und Gaffron , the commander of the 15th Panzer Division, was sent ahead with a column of reconnaissance, anti-tank, machine-gun, and artillery units to block the eastern exit from Tobruk as the 5th Light Division moved from the southwest and the 27th Infantry Division Brescia advanced from the west.
The next day, the port was invested ; but the rush ended with the 5th Light Division on the east side, the Prittwitz group to the south Prittwitz having been killed , and the 27th Infantry Division Brescia to the west.
Reconnaissance Unit 3 went on to Bardia, and a composite force was sent on to Sollum to try to reach Mersa Matruh. The tanks were held off by artillery-fire; German infantry who reached the anti-tank ditch were forced back by Australian infantry.
Groups of Axis vehicles were attacked by 45 and 55 squadrons RAF, which rearmed at the airfields inside the perimeter. Another attempt was made later and by dawn a small bridgehead had been established, where the 5th Panzer Regiment drove through and turned northwards, ready to divide into one column for the harbour and one to move west to stop the escape of the garrison.
The German tanks were engaged head on by the 1st RHA and veered away, only to drive into the path of the British cruiser tanks, waiting hull-down and received anti-tank fire from three sides, losing sixteen of 38 tanks and retreated.
The Australian infantry had stood their ground and pinned down the German infantry. As the retreat continued, every gun and aircraft at Tobruk fired into the area and the German 8th Machine-Gun Battalion lost about 75 percent of its men including its commander Gustav Ponath , for a garrison loss of 26 men killed, 64 wounded, two tanks and a field gun knocked out.
Attacks from the south were abandoned and the 5th Light Division dug in, with the Schwerin Group renamed after Prittwitz had been killed to the east.
In the morning, the nd Armoured Division Ariete attacked again and some tanks reached the most advanced Australian posts, found that their infantry had not followed and retired after five tanks were knocked out.
Morshead ordered the garrison to exploit Axis disorganisation and their inability to quickly dig in on stony ground, through conducting patrols and small sorties.
The defeat of the Axis attacks in April greatly improved the situation in Tobruk but Fliegerkorps X had sent — aircraft to Libya from Sicily in February, which flew frequent dive-bomber sorties by day and medium-bomber raids by day and night on the docks, buildings, anti-aircraft sites, artillery positions and the airfields.
At least ten Hawker Hurricane fighters were based at the port during the day and on 19 April, Hurricanes of 73 and Squadrons , intercepted a Stuka raid escorted by fighters.
After another two days, 73 Squadron was down to five operational aircraft with very tired pilots. By 23 April, three more Hurricanes had been shot down, a further 2 were damaged and on 25 April the squadron was withdrawn.
The fighters of Squadron stayed at Gerawla and 6 Squadron remained at Tobruk to fly tactical reconnaissance sorties.
Fighter cover could only be maintained at intervals by the last 14 Hurricanes in the desert; Axis airfields at Gazala, Derna and Benina, were bombed at dusk and night to limit Axis air attacks on Tobruk.
On 12 April, for example, 45 and 55 Squadron Bristol Blenheim bombers, operating from airfields in Egypt, attacked German tank formations near the port.
The attack succeeded in breaking up the German advance. In his view the situation in the air had rapidly deteriorated. The arrival of two German fighter wings Jagdgeschwader 27 and Zerstörergeschwader 26 near Tobruk allowed the enemy formations to arrive at great height within ten minutes of an air raid warning, leaving British fighters at lower altitude and a great disadvantage.
He remarked attrition had caused "a serious reduction in our fighter force. He wished to operate in greater strength, and complained reinforcements and fresh pilots were needed to replace the exhausted 73 Squadron.
He told London that to maintain patrols, the fighters were forced to refuel at Sidi Barrani granting Axis air units a free hand over Tobruk but arguing that without patrols to defend fighter squadrons refuelling at Tobruk on the ground, they were "hostage to a fortune we cannot afford.
From 1—14 May each side paused to stockpile supplies for the next battle. Five pilots were killed, one captured and one wounded.
The intensity of the battle for air superiority was mirrored by the air war over the sea as the Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica attempted to cut off sea traffic supplying the defenders.
The air-sea battle, after the failure of Operation Battleaxe , was the main sector of operations for Allied and Axis aviation throughout the summer.
The eight-month long siege was costly for the Stuka gruppen. At the end of April, virtually all Tobruk-based fighters had been removed from the encircled port.
The Ju 87s were facing defenders with anti-aircraft artillery numbering 88 guns—28 heavy 90 mm or above. Ships lent their weapons to the defenders.
In an example, the gunboat Ladybird , sunk in shallow waters to her deck by II. The arrival of Italian Ju 87s from 97 Gruppo resulted in the sinking of the 3,ton tanker Helka on 25 May before it could reach Tobruk.
Commensurate with the sinking of Fiona and Chakla in April, the burden fell to the Mediterranean Fleet 's destroyers to carry the burden but supply operations in daylight and on moonlit nights proved hazardous.
This unit also sank the destroyer Waterhen. The gunners changed their tactics from a sustained barrage at a fixed altitude, to a staggered, and thickened belt, at various altitudes covering metres or more, thereby forcing the Ju 87s to fly through fire for much longer.
The gunners spread their fire from side to side, to prevent German pilots from travelling down the side of the barrage and sliding in underneath it.
An attack by the Ju 87s sank the Latona 2, t with a direct hit—though the vessel could reach 40 knots. The destroyer Hero was badly damaged in the same attack.
In March, destroyers were withdrawn from the Inshore Squadron to escort convoys to Greece and in April, four more ships joined the squadron.
As the army retreated to Tobruk and the frontier, coastal operations were conducted on the nights of 10—11 April by gunboats, which bombarded transport on the Via Balbia around Bomba and Gambut airfield and on the night of 12 April, six destroyers and two cruisers made a coastal sweep from Ras Tayones to Ras et Tin.
Next day, three ships bombarded Sollum and on 15 April, transport was bombarded at Bardia and Capuzzo, as Gazala airfield was shelled again. For the rest of April, naval bombardments continued along the Libyan coast on the Via Balbia, airfields and ports.
A Commando raid was carried out on Bardia and supply runs began to Tobruk. On arrival, one LCA could not be lowered and there were difficulties releasing the others.
Once ashore the Commandos found that the port was empty of Axis forces and faulty intelligence led to some objectives being missed and others turning out not to exist.
The Commandos destroyed an Italian supply dump and a coastal artillery battery before re-embarking. Seventy men got lost, ended up on the wrong evacuation beach and were captured.
After the failure to capture Tobruk off the march, Comando Supremo and OKW agreed that Tobruk should be captured and supplies accumulated, before the advance into Egypt was resumed.
Rommel thought that Tobruk could only be taken by a deliberate attack, which could not begin until support units had arrived in the area and the Luftwaffe had been reinforced, particularly with transport aircraft to carry ammunition, fuel and water.
On 27 April, Major-General Friedrich Paulus a Deputy Chief of the General Staff, arrived from Oberkommando des Heeres OKH in Berlin, to question Rommel on his intentions, impress on him that there was little more help available and to forecast the defensive possibilities of the area, if Sollum was lost.
Paulus refused to allow an attack planned for 30 April, until he had studied the situation and on 29 April, allowed the attack to go ahead, as did Gariboldi who had arrived on 28 April.
Nothing more ambitious than securing the Axis hold on the Egyptian frontier, from Siwa Oasis north to Sollum was envisaged.
The Tobruk garrison continued work on the defences and sowed minefields, the first being planted in the south-west, between the outer and inner perimeters.
The Axis attack was to be made in the south-west, either side of the hillock of Ras el Medauar, about two weeks after the previous attempt, using the 5th Light Division on the right and the 15th Panzer Division on the left, even though it had only recently arrived in Africa.
At p. German infantry would press forward to reconnoitre the vicinity of Fort Pilastrino, to see if the attack could continue to the harbour.
If not, the Italian infantry would dig in on the flanks and artillery would be moved forward for an attack the next day.
The Australians expected an attack, after withstanding bombing and artillery-fire on the perimeter defences on 29 April; Axis troops seen massing in the evening of 30 April had been dispersed by artillery-fire.
The posts either side of Ras el Medauar were shelled and bombed and German troops began to dribble forward, under cover of dust and the gathering darkness.
By p. The night passed in confused fighting as the Germans tried to reorganise and mop up at Ras el Medauar and attack south-westwards along the perimeter.
The new attack failed and by morning, some of the Australian posts were still holding out. A thick mist rose and German tanks moved eastwards instead of south-east and then ran into the new minefield, where they were engaged by anti-tank guns and repulsed.
Tanks of the 15th Panzer Division, tried to drive north but were prevented by anti-tank fire. No German reserves were left and the most advanced troops were south of Wadi Giaida, tired and isolated in a sandstorm.
Paulus judged that the attack had failed and Rommel decided to attack on the right to widen the breach. In the afternoon, German tanks attacked south-east towards Bir el Medauar and Morshead sent 15 cruiser and five infantry tanks to counter-attack.
During the day, 73 and Squadrons had maintained standing patrols over the area and on the morning of 2 May, the fighting around Wadi Giaida continued in a dust storm, as German troops tried to trickle forward.
On the night of 3 May, the 18th Australian Brigade made a converging counter-attack with two battalions, which lost co-ordination, failed and was ended, to avoid being caught in the open at daybreak.
In a report on 12 May, Paulus wrote that sea communications between Italy and Libya should be reinforced, that any air and anti-aircraft units sent to Libya should be German and that the army in Libya needed ammunition, fuel and food first, then more vehicles before the dispatch of more men, of whom medium artillery and anti-tank gun crews should have priority.
The Tobruk garrison settled into a routine of patrols, air raids and minor attacks, some to regain positions in the Medauar salient and some in connexion with WDF operations.
The Twin Pimples was a defensive strong point outside Tobruk, on two hills close together which overlooked the Tobruk perimeter. The Commandos advanced at p.
At the supply road they took cover, waited until a. The password Jock was used when a position had been taken and the Italians were swiftly overcome.
The Australian engineers planted explosives on several mortars and an ammunition dump. Operation Brevity 15—16 May was a limited offensive to inflict attrition on the Axis forces and to secure positions for a general offensive towards Tobruk.
The Allies attacked with a small tank-infantry force in three columns and seized the top of the Halfaya Pass, Bir Wair and Musaid, then pressed on and took Fort Capuzzo.
The coast group failed to capture the bottom of the Halfaya Pass. The garrison on the east side of the Tobruk defences was strengthened in case of a sortie and a German counter-attack recovered Musaid.
The coast group eventually overran the foot of the pass; but, the next day, Allied retirements against German counter-attacks to a line from Sidi Omar to Sidi Suleiman and Sollum, left all but Halfaya Pass in German hands.
The Allies lost casualties, five tanks destroyed and 13 damaged. German casualties were men, three tanks destroyed and several damaged.
The Italians had casualties, of whom were captured. Operation Battleaxe, 15—17 June was intended to lift the siege of Tobruk and capture eastern Cyrenaica.
The attack was to be conducted by the 7th Armoured Division and a composite infantry force based on the 4th Indian Division headquarters, with two brigades.
The infantry were to attack in the area of Bardia, Sollum, Halfaya and Capuzzo, with the tanks guarding the southern flank.
The Halfaya Pass attack failed, Point was captured and only one of three attacks on Hafid Ridge succeeded. At the end of 15 June only 48 British tanks remained operational and next day, a German counter-attack forced back the Allies on the western flank but was repulsed in the centre; the Allies were reduced to 21 Cruiser tanks and 17 Infantry tanks.
On 17 June, the Allies evaded encirclement by two Panzer regiments and ended the operation. Another 1 nomination.
Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Rock Hudson Donald Craig George Peppard Bergman Nigel Green Harker Guy Stockwell Mohnfeld Jack Watson Tyne Percy Herbert Dolan Norman Rossington Alfie Liam Redmond Henry Portman Heidy Hunt Cheryl Portman Leo Gordon Krug Robert Wolders Bruckner Anthony Ashdown Boyden Curt Lowens German Colonel Rico Cattani Edit Storyline September - With Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps on the march through Egypt, a British special forces unit, composed of German Jews who serve with the British despite the mutual resentment between both, kidnap a Canadian officer who is an expert topographer and who is held prisoner by the Vichy French in Algeria.
Taglines: What they did that day will be remembered for all time! Edit Did You Know? Goofs When Capt. Bergman attacks and kills the sentry, blood is visible on his right knife hand before he stabs the sentry.
Quotes Major Craig : Tuareg! Hold your fire. If there's one there's more. Colonel Harker : Wouldn't be the first time they've attacked a column.
Captain Berghman : English column's Colonel. This is German. Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Add the first question.
Language: English German Italian Arabic. In addition to these prepared fortifications, there were a number of escarpments and cliffs to the south of Tobruk, providing substantial physical barriers to any advance on the port over land.
Tobruk was also on a peninsula, allowing it to be defended by a minimal number of troops, which the Allies used to their advantage when the port was under siege.
An attacker could not simply bypass the defenders, for if they did, the besieged would sally forth and cut off the nearby supply lines of the attacker, spoiling their advance.
But Tobruk was also strategically significant, due to its location with regard to the remainder of Cyrenaica.
Attackers from the east who had secured Tobruk could then advance through the desert to Benghazi , cutting off all enemy troops along the coast, such as those at Derna.
This advance would be protected from counterattack , due to escarpments that were quite difficult for a military force to climb, running generally from Tobruk to Suluq.
Due to the importance of maintaining supply in the desert, getting cut off in this area was disastrous. Therefore, whoever held both Suluq and Tobruk controlled the majority of Cyrenaica.
This was significant due to the importance of air power in desert warfare. Italian forces and their native Libyan allies—about two divisions of the latter invaded Egypt in early September but halted their advance after a week and dug in at Sidi Barrani.
In early December, British Empire forces—an armoured division and two infantry divisions—launched a counterstrike codenamed Operation Compass.
The Italians had previously invaded Albania and occupied part of the south of France , and had now made a military incursion into a British protectorate.
The counterstrike involved the British pocketing two of the Italian camps against the Mediterranean, forcing their surrender. This led to a general Italian retreat to El Agheila.
Tobruk was captured by British, Australian and Indian forces on 22 January Italy also sent several more divisions to Libya. These forces, under Lieutenant-General Erwin Rommel , drove the Allies back across Cyrenaica to the Egyptian border, leaving Tobruk isolated and under siege.
The defenders of the fortress consisted of the Australian 9th Division , the Australian 18th Brigade and some British tanks and artillery.
Rommel's second offensive took place in May and June Tobruk was taken in an outflanking attack on 21 June , capturing the largest number of British Commonwealth troops after the fall of Singapore earlier in the year, where over 80, were captured.
Rommel was promoted to Generalfeldmarschall , shortly thereafter and was the youngest in the Wehrmacht Heer to achieve this rank.
The following units were deployed in Tobruk on 20 June , and most of them were captured by the Axis forces: .
It remained in Allied hands thereafter. Although not as much a reason for its strategic significance, the British built a rail line from El Alamein to Tobruk during the course of the war.
This rail line was significant both for purposes of supply and as a sense of pride to the Allied troops, as the rail line was built through a little-populated, inhospitable desert.
In November that government was declared illegal by Libya's highest court. Professor Omar El Barasi b. One of the founders of the Mellita oil complex, west of Libya, which was considered the largest gas project in the world at the time ,.
Omar Mukhtar was born in Zanjhur, near Tobruk. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Tobruk disambiguation.
Place in Cyrenaica, Libya. Further information: Marmarica and North Africa during Antiquity. This article may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies.
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Main article: British capture of Tobruk.New York: Da Capo Roadtrip Kroatien. The port was frequently Tobruk by artillery, dive-bombers and medium bombers, as the RAF flew defensive sorties from airfields far away in Egypt. London: Odhams. Florian Heider - With Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps on the Black Flash through Egypt, Serien Stream Kdrama British special forces unit, composed of German Jews who Müden Mosel with the British despite the mutual resentment between both, kidnap a Canadian officer Arrow Serie Staffel 3 is an expert topographer and who is held prisoner by the Vichy French in Algeria. Archived from Chris Gauthier original on 19 March The night passed in confused fighting as the Germans tried to reorganise and mop up at Ras Tobruk Medauar and attack south-westwards along the perimeter. Retrieved 19 April